Greek Philosophy

Socrates (469-399 BC).



   Socrates' Daimonion [Sign]   


    Νους [Mind]   




  The Soul    





Socrates (569-399 B.C.).

It is well known that the Greeks were the first to introduce philosophy in the world. After the Seven Sages (7th century BC), Pythagoras considered himself to be just a "friend of wisdom" (φίλος της σοφίας), the etymology of the word "philosopher" in Greek. After that other great philosophers founded many schools of philosophy, such as Plato's Academy, the Peripatetic School of Aristotle, the Eleatiki School, the School of the Stoics, etc.

The Greeks were receptive unreservedly to knowledge and wisdom of other peoples, although all foreign peoples were called barbarians. They traveled in Egypt, Chaldea, Persia and India where they met sages, members of the priesthood and magicians, and initiated into the mysteries in these countries. But they sifted and screened all this knowledge, mystical traditions, wisdom and superstitions through the sieve of mind and rational thought. They adopted what they consider to be proper, but rejected totally some others, whilst the secret knowledge was included in the rituals of the Greek mysteries.

The Greeks did not consider the philosophy as something separated from science, education, good governance, art and lifestyle. So they managed to create a great culture that is admired today and many Greek cities, following the example of Athenians inaugurated the regime of democracy. Later, the School of Neoplatonists contributed to the culture of Alexandrian Epoch and influenced the early Christianity, Gnosticism, Hermeticism and promoted the development of sciences such as astronomy, medicine, etc.

The Greek philosophy passed on to Rome and spread to Western countries and had a profound impact on Western philosophical thought. Especially the Greek mythology inspired the great artists of the Renaissance and those of the subsequent centuries.

The value of Greek philosophy seems to be everlasting, since even today is taught in the universities of all countries even in countries with ancient cultures, such as India and China.